Background: Studies have reported that infection with certain sexually transmitted diseases STD , such as chancroid, gonorrhea, and genital herpes, enhances the probability of human immunodeficiency virus HIV transmission by sexual contact with an infected partner. Epidemiologic studies vary in design from longitudinal to cross-sectional, with varying periods of follow-up or retrospective history of exposure to STD. The major difficulty in assessing the results of past work centers on the validity and precision of widely used measures of association, such as relative risk RR and odds ratio OR , in situations in which common behavior e. Analysis was performed using Monte-Carlo simulation. The adjusted CIR, HRR, and PR tend to underestimate the strength of the true association specified in the model in both longitudinal and cross-sectional designs.
An evolutionary life-history framework for understanding sex differences in human mortality rates
Pathways of endocrine disruption during male sexual differentiation and masculinization
Sex differences in mortality rates stem from genetic, physiological, behavioral, and social causes that are best understood when integrated in an evolutionary life history framework. This paper investigates the Male-to-Female Mortality Ratio M:F MR from external and internal causes and across contexts to illustrate how sex differences shaped by sexual selection interact with the environment to yield a pattern with some consistency, but also with expected variations due to socioeconomic and other factors. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Alexander, Richard D. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Sex Addict (feat. R.M.) - Single
Skip to main content. Sex Addict feat. Rosmur Music Group. March 14, Listen Now.
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